*Some say that the location coordinates of the Great Pyramid of Giza match the exact number sequence for the speed of light expressed as 299,792,458 meters per second or 299,792 kilometers per second – all of which we can scientifically express as 1c. “Metabunk” debunks the claim without making a scientifically based analysis. Snopes says the claim is false but their “analysis” is not a scientific one at all. Who is right and who is wrong? Let us examine the available data…scientifically.*

## Latitude of Khufu = Speed of Light?

Before we discuss the probability if indeed Khufu was built at the speed of light, let us look at the amazing levelness at which the tall pyramid is constructed. One thing is sure – it is impossible to level the pyramids of Giza with only primitive tools, such as sticks, stones, ropes, water trenches, and so on. These are the tools suggested by historians.

It is impossible to level this accurate with these primitive tools. Not even by a factor of 10! And still, not many scientists seem to bother about the clear anomalies we can discover in the great pyramid and what the academia believe about the ancient “Egyptians”.

Measuring tools must be at least **twice** as accurate as the building specifications with which they are associated. It has always been known that measuring equipment must be more accurate than what the manufacturing process requires. This is a basic engineering requirement.

It is also important to understand that, as a production process gets evaluated, the inaccuracy of the gauge is inherently part of the variation observed in the process. Generally, instrument makers assure that a gauge is 10 times as accurate as the product tolerances that are involved. So, we are quite tolerant when we only apply a factor of two.

It is simple to understand that only a society as advanced as our own could built such a massive, and also very precise structure. And still, no scientist seems to notice the anomalies between the historical paradigm and the real facts. Just ignore is their mantra.

## What Does That Mean for Measuring Instruments?

Practically speaking does that mean that if we want to orient a structure, like the pyramids at Giza, within 0.06° to true North our measuring device must be at least twice as accurate to make that goal possible. That means that the instrument of the ancient “Egyptians” could determine true North within an angle of 0.03°.

To illustrate how small that angle is; it equals hitting a baseball at half a mile distance with whatever means you can think of today. But can you think of a primitive instrument made of stick and stones that could do that? No one has ever been able to reproduce that claim with the proposed primitive tools, not even close.

We simply don’t know which kind of instruments the pyramid builders used but it were certainly not sticks and stones.

## Five Mathematically Proven Poles and How they Relate to Ice Ages

## Why is Giza’s Latitude Important?

Why would someone built such magnificent structures in the middle of nowhere?

Like visually presented in Fig. 2 have we discovered four *former* geographic poles that we have named Poles II to Pole V. Pole I is our current geographic pole. The city of Teotihuacan is oriented towards the core of the ancient Pole III. But there are more similarities between the two majestic structures.

- The monuments of Teotihuacan have an
*almost*similar arrangement as the monuments of Giza. - The base of Khufu is
*almost*similar to the inside perimeter of the temple of Quetzalcoatl. - The distance between Teotihuacan and the Pole III equals the distance between Giza and Pole I. The deviation is only 0.36% and that is caused by the deformations the crust endured over the last 210,000 years when the North pole migrated in steps to its current location.
- In the legends; what Quetzalcoatl is for Teotihuacan is Thoth for Giza.

## Both Monuments at the Same Latitude

## But We Need to Make Some Corrections First

Egyptologists also explain the building accuracy of the pyramids by using standards that apply now, in this era. The Nubian (African) plate, on which the pyramids are located, has moved since the time these structures were built. Small plate movements must be corrected in the contemporary data for level and orientation to find the correct data that applied **at the time of the pyramid’s construction**.

After properly extrapolating the data, we find astounding accuracies, which cannot be explained if it is assumed that the builders used only simple tools – not even by a factor of 10.

The question is:

- How probable is the claim that Khufu is built at a latitude that matches the speed of light?

## The Odds For 6 Digits to Match

When we perform simple straightforward calculations, there is a probability of an astonishing 1 to 900,000_{[1]} that the claim is false. Does that mean that the odds for Khufu’s latitude to represent the speed of light are very high: 99.99989%?

The answer is: NO. Why not? Because that is the plain chance that two seemingly unrelated items can correlate to each other. The probability calculation needs to be corrected – and we will explain.

## Why This Probability Needs Correction

Probability calculations often require corrections because we select just one from many other possible items. For example:

- there are three pyramids,
- there are more scientific constants,
- the Nubian plate shifted about 20 meters Northward since the pyramids were supposedly built.

Let us correct the outcome. In that outcome all the answers are apparent, the naked mathematical truth, as it were. Mathematics does not discriminate – it is neutral. Nonetheless, it must be used correctly.

Why do we need to involve more scientific constants than only the speed of light? Because, if the latitude were equal to * π* (314159), we would say that the latitude is equal to that number. Consequently, we would choose that number and that is the primary reason why the probability calculations have to be corrected.

Why do we need to involve all three pyramids? Because if Khafre would match the digits of the speed of light we would without hesitation turn our backs on Khufu and turn to Khafre. The same applies to Menkaure. To convince a skeptic, you usually need to present more than one example of proof.

## There are Also More Scientific Constants

There are many more constants in physics and mathematics. Constants are numbers like π, φ, e, i^{2}, the speed of light (c), atomic mass (M_{u}), the gravitational constant (G), electron mass (me), the Planck constant (h), etc.

In physics, there are about 400 of these constants. In mathematics, there are about 50 constants. If we add them all up, we find approximately 450 currently known scientific constants. But there are many trivial constants which are only known to the most capable experts. The list of most relevant constants is limited to only *26 constants* [2] in which the speed of light (c) and Pi (π) take the most prominent positions.

Here we have an uncorrected coincidence of 1.111×10^{-6}, which has to be downsized by the number of pyramids (3) and the number of constants (26). But we have to upgrade that outcome again with the number of other constants we find in the pyramids, like π, φ, and e (3). Why? Because it reinforces the fact that the builders incorporated constants into their buildings. Note that we have left out *c* (speed of light) because it is the constant that has to be proven and therefore should not take part in the process.

Probability that the claim is coincidental = 1.111×10^{-6} × 3 × 26 ÷ 3 = 2.89×10^{-5} ≈ **1 to 34,600.**

## Nubian Plate Movement

Presently, the Nubian plate moves about 2 and 5 mm/year Northward, depending on the plate tectonics model. This has already been the case for many thousands of years. Let us assume that this movement has been happening for the past 4,500 years at a rate of between 9 and 22.5 meters Northward. How does that change the latitude? The leftmost 5 digits would not change. Only the sixth digit from the left would change.

The correct calculation is this: plate movement [m] ÷ circumference Earth [m] × 360 [°] = 9 ÷ 40,075,000 × 360 = 0.000081° or 8.1*10^{-5}°.

That part of the Nubian plate moved Northward, hence the original latitude was located more to the South. The top of Khufu is now located at 29.9792°N. That movement in degrees needs to be corrected with -0.000081°, which results in 29.979°N. Some people would write the outcome as 29.979119, but we cannot consider the seventh and eighth digits because they are in the margin of error. The sixth digit must be rounded down to 0, hence it falls away: 29.979119 becomes 29.979.

If the plate moved 22.5 meters North we would find the same value, 29.978997879 becomes 29.979.

Why only five digits? Because geology can only tell us between which boundaries the Nubian plate moved: between 5 and 22.5 meters. That is why the 5 leftmost digits are rock solid: 29979. This changes the probability of 1 to 34,600 just mentioned above into 1 to 3,460.

The odds for the claim to be accurate and true is now reduced to **99.97%.** But this probability is as solid as it can get, because we have now incorporated reductions, such as the number of pyramids, the number of constants, and the Nubian plate movement.

*The claim is most likely true and correct, but…*

## But What if Giza is Much Older?

If the pyramids of Giza are much older, like some researchers believe, that would mean that the Giza plateau moved significantly more. For example if the pyramids are 12,500 years old that would change the original latitude in:

- min movement: (12,500 × 0.002) ÷ 40,075,000 × 360 = 0.000225°.
- max movement:(12,500 × 0.005) ÷ 40,075,000 × 360 = 0.000561°.

Since the Giza plateau slowly moves to the North, the original latitude would have been more to the South:

- original lat min: 29.9792 – 0.000225 = 29.9789°N. ⇒ 29.979
- original lat max: 29.9792 – 0.000561 = 29.9786°N.⇒ 29.978

So even if the Giza plateau would be much older the number sequence is either fully (minimal movement) or either partially (maximal movement) left intact. The claims for the pyramids to be much older and to be built on a latitude that matches the speed of light do not necessarily compete with each other. In the most extreme case would the likelihood of the claim drop to 1 to 346.

## This is How 1 to 3,460 Looks Like

## The Consequences

This claim has many consequences. The speed of light is defined in m/s. Location is defined in degrees. The exact way of positioning, up to a few meters, is believed to be just recently possible. Our historians have taught us these were inventions that came much later – after the pyramids of Giza.

The following historical beliefs listed below are probably * incorrect*:

- meter – officially defined in 1790 in Paris, France.
- second – first coined by the Muslim scholar Al-Biruni in 1000 CE.
- degree – first coined by the Greeks between 250 and 150 BC.
- decimal system – probably originated in Iran around 3,500 BC.
- the circumference of the earth – first known accurate calculations done by Persian Al-Biruni around 1000 CE.
- the speed of light in a vacuum – first accurate estimate in 1728 done by James Bradley.
- global positioning up to a precision of 5 meters – first possible since 1995.

What is more probable: that you are deceived by a tiny elite or that Khufu is the crown on the works of highly developed lost civilzation? The choice is yours as to which is Mythos (allegories) versus Logos (mathematics).

The Egyptian measure, the cubit, for example, was defined as π – φ^{2} = 0.52356 (m). But that also is regarded as coincidence by most scholars because they were not supposed to know π or φ down to six or more digits – but they did.

The pyramids of Giza are full of mathematical relations while Egyptologists keep persistently denying something that is obvious for everyone to see.

## Conclusion

The probability that the pyramid of Khufu was meant to be built at a latitude which represents the speed of light is very high: 99.97%. There is only 1 to 3,460 chance it is a coincidental match.

To get a sense of proportion how small 1 to 3,460 is, you can perform this experiment for yourself:

- take a dice into your hand.
- Think of a number you wish to throw. Say it out loud, then throw the dice.
- If this was successful, you’re on the level of 1 to 6.
- You still need to repeat that same experiment successfully 3 times in a row, so 4 times in total, to get to the level of 1 to 1,296.

The odds for the Khufu pyramid to stand coincidentally at a latitude that matches five digits of a scientific constant is 1 to 3,460. The message is clear: **it is very likely that Khufu’s latitude represents the speed of light and that it was meant to be so.** It is all there, in the numbers – whether we agree with the results or not.

Since there are other very important constants incorporated into the pyramids, it is very likely that our claim is not only true, but also very accurate. Invariably, debunkers are unsuccessful in refuting a given claim because they have not debunked anything on a scientific basis, which voids any credibility. Instead, they mindlessly repeat the stories previously told, which everyone already knows. Where is the science? As far as ancient history is concerned, there is precious little science practiced in today’s mainstream academia. It is a dogma based on stories repeated endlessly.

Serious scholars and scientists should be more self-discerning or maybe more independent, making up their own minds based on research and logic.

The tall constructions in Egypt are shouting at us with a clear message: **they were built by a very advanced civilization.**

© 2015-2020 by Mario Buildreps

[1]: The digit 9, the leftmost digit, needs perhaps some explanation. The number we can invoke here is between 1 and 9 because when we invoke a 0, it drops away. The other numbers can vary between 0 and 9, and can, therefore, take 10 positions, hence the five tens. Back to the leftmost digit – it can flip from positive to negative – and that represent respectively the Northern and Southern hemisphere. So, this digit can take in fact 18 positions. But if we look at this in a practical, we can build only something where there’s land. From South Africa, all the way up to Sweden, or from South India to Siberia, or from South America to Canada. From this perspective, it is fair to keep a 9 there, instead of an 18. Some might argue you can replace it with a 10, 11, or even a higher number with the argument that alleged pyramids are found on Antarctica. That is their choice, I prefer the more conservative probability calculations.

[2]: According to our knowledge are these the 26 most important constants in physics and mathematics – Archimedes’ constant (π), Speed of light (c), Imaginary unit (i²), The golden ratio (φ), Euler’s number (e), Charge of an electron (*e*), Mass of an electron (m*e*), Mass of a proton (m*p*), Mass of a neutron (m*n*), Atomic mass unit (μ), Universal gravitational constant (G), Planck’s constant (h), Dirac’s constant (ħ), Boltzmann’s constant (k), Permittivity of vacuum (ε0), Coulomb’s constant (1/4πε0), Avogadro’s constant (NA), Boltzmann constant (k), Faraday’s constant (F), Ideal gas constant (R), Permeability of vacuum (μ0), Impedance of vacuum (Z0), Rydberg constant (R∞), Bohr radius (a0), Bohr magneton (μb), Flux quantum (Ф0)

## 16 Responses

A lot of maths, but not so much rigorous logic. You seem to claim a lot of stuff (logic steps) and derive conclusions for which you don’t provide any proof whatsoever (like, we don’t know how it was measured, so it must be a highly advanced civilization) but that would take too much of my time to mention all.

It is certainly an interesting coincidence that ONE of the coordinates is so neatly accurate, but….

Did they also know, millennia in advance that one day a group of blokes in England would start measuring the Earth from Greenwich, and thus affect where that constant c would lie? If we are so advanced, why not the other coordinate too?

Or were those same Englishman that worked it all out in reverse and chose Greenwich as a starting point to start counting (in a way) so that the speed of light (not measured yet) would fall right on their favourite pyramid so that they could entertain the masses a few centuries later? But, wait, if they were so bright, why not align the other coordinate as well?

It is true that historians have historically underestimated ancient civilizations, that is obvious in their lack of answers as to how these monuments were built, but one thing is saying that they had more accurate tools than we are led to believe, another is saying that they knew what the speed of light was. I mean, if we can’t find the same advanced tools to explain simple measurements, where is the evidence for the tools used to measure the speed of light???

This comes to show that knowledge is no substitute for wisdom, one can know all the equations in the world, if one’s logic is flawed, it will always lead to wrong conclusions,

If you cross enough data, you will always find some coincidences. that’s what coincidences are.

And please don’t say it was the aliens… 🙂

Does it seem, that the center of one of the largest and most mysterious structures on earth appears to be also at the speed of light, as coincidence to you? What do you mean when you cross enough data? As if there are so many comparable structures? Do you really believe that yourself? No aliens, just humans like you and me, thriving on high yugas.

Hi Mario

Long time no talk.

As one of those trying to make sense of a much earlier date, I have started wondering if our understanding of continental drift is correct. Perhaps a model somewhere between the “expanding and contracting earth” model and plate tectonics might be correct… so the plates would move in one direction for a while, then slow down, and then move back in the opposite direction …

Cheers, Ian

Hi Ian, the current models of continental drift are definitely not more than a wild guess submerged into a swamp of mathematical cloudiness. The assumptions in all models is that the radius is a perfect constant. And if that assumption is questioned than the current models hint clearly to expansion.

Hi Mario. As you may know, the 1st and 2nd pyramids of Giza are slightly rotated anticlockwise. I’m thinking that the reason of that could be the rotation of the Nubian plate over a period of some 15.000 years. In the above fig. 5 the rotation rate is reported as 3,6°/Myr, and this rate would perfectly fit with my hypothesis. However, I have read a scientific paper where the rotation rate of the Nubian plate is reportedly much lower, about 0,4°/Myr. Can you advice on that? Thank you Mario, and congratulations for your awesome work.

Hi Loris, indeed are the pyramids of Giza slightly counterclockwise oriented, which suggests that they are indeed rotated due to the rotation of the African plate. To be honest all numbers are mere guesses because they all are based on data with a large margin of error. I would not doubt a second to place these pyramids somewhere in the range of 15ky. And also, these pyramids has a small orientational error when they were built.

The match with the speed of light in meters per second rather than cubits makes sense teleologically. If I was an ancient astronaut and wanted to send a “time-capsule” seal of authentication from the present (then past) into the future (now present) I would do so using units contemporary of the intended recipient.

That makes sense, Jorgen. Also, the meter can be defined universally everywhere in the universe, while the cubit is an arbitrary measure.

Ah yes, I suppose it is more consistent with the universal language of mathematics. Is it true that the meter is one 10,000th the distance between the equator and the poles? Why would a superior ancient race appeal to an arbitrary unit (cubits) in lieu of mathematically and ontologically consistent units?

In light of this, I’m also trying to “intersect” this phenomenon with the Mandelbrot Set, which alludes to a universe built on a foundation of universal mathematical principles signalling order as well as tremendous beauty. If a universe is built upon a foundation of order and beauty it then stands to reason it would contain a myriad of creatures reflecting that same order and beauty.

The meter is indeed almost precisely 1/10,000th of the distance between the equator and one of the poles. It’s only 0.02% off, and maybe is the deviation caused by changes in earth’s recent dimensions. I certainly agree with you that the fabric of the universe is solely built on mathematics and that is the reason why there’s beauty and order everywhere around us. It is irrational to believe that the universe would be built on something else, for it would by definition lead to chaos. Also, the universe ultimately vibrates in a harmonious way, and so because vibrations can be perfectly described as equations, everything in the universe IS mathematics.

Great start, but you seem to lose rigor towards the end. You mention there are 3 pyramids, but the Great Pyramid isn’t even the biggest pyramid in the world. As you say, if there wasn’t this alignment with the Great Pyramid, we’d attribute significance somewhere else, like the Great Pyramid of Cholula. There are more than 35,000 megalithic structures in Europe alone, but obviously these don’t lie on the right latitude. But now we have a paradox – we’re asking “what is the chance that a structure that was built on a certain latitude was built on a certainly latitude?” Well, 100% because that’s the only reason we are looking at it. Instead, maybe it would be better to look at the density of structures on a given latitude? Surely if this encoding was so important, it would be repeated in other structures? As far as I know, it isn’t.

You also seem to give up a bit on the fact that is coincidence only occurs when using modern SI units, like the meter (defined imprecisely first as relating to a pendulum, then later in relation to the distance from the north pole to the equator through Paris. Surely there’s no significant link between the Pyramids and Paris?) The later definitions relating to the speed of light, whilst more accurate, don’t give a stronger link because that ratio was defined by the earlier ones – just more precisely.

So to go harder on your conclusions, we must believe there is some link between the Pyramids, and the French revolution and their definitions for the metric system. Same is true for your comments on the cubit and the metric measurement of a cubit. You could do the same analysis with the various constants – how many numerical significance can you find when adding, multiplying, dividing, squaring, square-rooting, etc, the various constants?

Most significantly, why, when the metric meter is so fundamentally important to all of these numerical links, didn’t the Egyptians use it? Why use the cubit? Why not use the powerful meter, given all of your elaborate encoding is in meters? I would be more inclined to believe these links if they were found in cubits, which had a clear, contemporary, and known significance and value (as they have been recovered from numerous burial sites).

If there is something universally fundamental about the metric system, perhaps the U.S and Liberia should put more effort into it’s adoption! After all, none of this numerical links would work if you were American, Liberian, or an older person from the U.K.!

The value of the speed of light is also an integer, where as latitude is measured in decimal degrees. We could equally expect the Great Pyramid to have been built at 2.99792458. Also, why latitude and not longitude? Longitude is harder to measure, and would be more impressive to accurately determine. They would have been able to, of course, assuming this is all correct, as they would have had to have an extremely accurate clock, which is required both for measuring a ‘second’, which you say they used along with the yet-to-be-invented meter to define the speed of light, as well as for determining longitude accurately.

Given their impressive technical abilities, one might be better to ask why they did not use, instead of the cubit or even the meter, some more fundamental unit like what was used on the Pioneer plaque? Understandable and measurable from first principles, with a deeper universal connection than the measurement from the equator, to Paris, to the north pole.

Longitude as measured from where?

Perhaps the longitude is also significant, if we knew the origin.

I was made aware geographical significance of Giza (largest amount of land mass along the longitudinal and latitudinal lines, more than any other place on earth) years ago but last night I was studying the Torus and realized the 4 “dimensions” of the Torus seemed similar to the 4 “dimensions” of Giza. I decided to review some information about Giza and I was astounded when I heard it was roughly 15 percent of earth distance away from the north pole and I immediately thought…Plank Constant (6.62607015*10-34)

I need to continue researching but I came across this review of Giza while attempting to find out if anyone else has realized the relationship of the Plank Constant and the Pyramids of Giza.

Namaste

Sounds good. Keep us updated when you find info worth of sharing. Best wishes!

Hey, I was just wondering if you’ve discovered anything. Please let me know if you have!